The Jewish Calendar has twelve months with
names that derives from the Jewish exile in Babylonia. Every month has
its own special days. The holiday of Passover comes in the month of
Nissan (March/April according to the Gregorian calendar). Jewish New
Year comes in the month of Tishrei (September/October), but Passover
is also the beginning of a new year, because when God took the Jews
out of Egypt, he commanded them "This month shall be to you the
first of the months…"
The holiday has five different names, because
there are so many important ideas to remember about this event.
which tells you that God passed over the homes of the innocent to
destroy only the wicked. It teaches us that there comes a time of
reckoning, and God separates the good from the bad.
- Pesach refers
to the Paschal lamb. The lamb was one of the Egyptian gods. In order
to be saved, the Jews had to slaughter a lamb as a symbol of
renouncing the way of life and the religion of those among whom they
- Z’man Cheruteinu, the
time of Jewish liberation, is the third name of a holiday whose
central theme is freedom.
- Chag Ha-matzot, the
holiday of the unleavened bread, stresses how the move from slavery
to freedom can almost instantaneous. There wasn’t even time for
the bread to rise. Change for the better can come in the blink of an
eye, just as it did for the Jews who ended up eating matzo (unleavened
bread) because their freedom came so quickly. It was originally an
agricultural holiday, celebrating the harvest.
- Chag Ha-Aviv,
the holiday of spring, does not only identify when Passover
occurs, but also adds an additonal message explaining why
redemption occurred when it did. The spring
of nature is paralleled by the spring of God’s concern for His
people and for the world. The hey idea of the holiday, as of spring,
Passover is observed for seven days in
Israel and for eight days in the Diaspora. A holiday with so many
names and such important messages needs a very special service. This
service is too important even for the synagogue, so it is observed
in the holiest sanctuary of all, in the home. It involves those
people most responsible for carrying on the tradition, the children.
It has a fixed order, which is why it is called Seder (literally
"order"). It has its own prayer book, Haggada, the
most widely reprinted book in Jewish history. Christians know this
meal as the Last Supper. That was the meal Jesus partook of with his
disciples before his execution by the Romans. For Jews, it is
probably the ritual celebrated by more of its people than any other.
In Israel, the first and seventh days of
Passover are celebrated as full holiday. The days in between are
half holidays. In the Diaspora, the first two and last two of the
days are full holidays.
For the Jewish homemaker Passover is a time
for cleaning the home thoroughly, to be sure that no leavened bread
is in the house. Also everything that can get sour and utensils that
has been in contact with such food is prohibited during Passover.
The Book of Exodus (13:7) specifically mandates that on Passover
"no leaven shall bee seen in all your borders". The
obligation to eat matza on Passover is stated several times
in the Bible:
- Exodus 13:7 "Throughout the seven
days unleavened bread shall be eaten."
- Exodus 12:18 "In the first month,
from the fourteenth day of the month at evening, you shall eat
After water is added to one of the grains for
making matza, the dough is kneaded and shaped, placed in the
oven and removed, all within eighteen minutes.
Although a food may be kosher during the year,
any product that is fermented or can cause fermentation may not be
consumed on Passover. Likewise, all pots, pans, dishes and utensils
that may have been in contact with such food must be cleansed and
purged (koshered). All that cannot be purged must be set aside during
All food items whose suitability for Passover
is questionable must be certified by a rabbinic authority.
The Seder is a family home service and meal.
Before the Seder, at the usual candle lighting time, the homemaker
lights the holiday candles and recites the regular holiday blessings.
The blessings can be found in most Haggadot. The Haggada is the
prayer book of the Seder. It details the procedures of the evening,
recounts the dramatic story of the Exodus from Egypt, and includes
selections from the Book of Psalms plus a variety of festive songs.
The Haggada in its original form was introduced 2500 years ago.
Three matzot are placed on the Seder
table to remind the Jewish people of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Another
popular interpretation is that the three matzot represent the
three classes in Jewish community: Priests, Levites and Israelites. It
is also eaten to remind us about the bread of suffering that the
ancestors ate in Egypt.
The Seder tray (or plate) is placed on the
table. It has six compartments to hold the symbolic Passover foods:
a green vegetable such as parsley, symbolizing spring and
- Haroset, a
mixture of chopped apples, nuts, wine, and spices, symbolizing the
mortar that the slaves made for bricks in Egypt.
bitter herbs, (for example horse radish), symbol of the
bitterness of slavery.
a hardboiled, unshelled, roasted or browned egg, a reminder of the
regular festival sacrifice brought in the days when the Temple stood
a roasted bone, usually a shank bone, symbol of the Pasach
symbol of the tears of the Jewish ancestors who cried for God’s
help and were answered.
Before the formal Seder meal, a dish of
sliced, diced or hardboiled eggs is served. Each participant takes
some egg on a spoon and dips it in salt water. The egg is a
reminder of the holiday sacrifice brought in Temple times.
To involve children in the proceedings of
the evening, four questions were designed to be asked of the
leader. Generally, the youngest child at the Seder asks the
questions. If children are not present, anyone may recite them.
Why is this night different from all
other nights? I have four questions to ask about this.
- Why is it that on all other nights
during the year we eat either bread or matza, but on
this night we eat only matza?
- Why is it that on all other nights we
eat all kinds of vegetables, but on this night we eat bitter
- Why is it that on all other nights we
do not dip even once, but on this night we dip twice?
- Why is it that on all other nights we
eat either sitting or reclining, but on this night we eat in a
Answer from the leader:
Your questions are well stated, and they
will be answered in the course of the Seder we celebrate tonight
to commemorate the deliverance of our ancestors from ancient
Egypt, the house of bondage.
Traditionally, on Sabbaths and holidays
two cups of wine are used at mealtime. On Passover two more cups
are added, and all four cups are consumed during the course of the
Seder. A popular interpretation is that they stand for four
different expressions used by God in connection with the release
of the Israelites from bondage: I shall bring
forth, deliver, redeem, and take out.
At the conclusion of the Seder meal a
special goblet, known as the Cup of Elijah, is filled with wine.
In Jewish tradition, Elijah the Prophet represents the person who
will usher in the Messianic Age, a time when peace will prevail
throughout the world. Elijah is a welcome guest at every Seder
and, to demonstrate that fact, at a specific time during the Seder
service the front door of the house is opened to bid him welcome.
At one point during the Seder the leader
breaks off a piece of the middle matza that sits on the
Seder tray and hides it in a napkin or bag. Children look for it,
and if they find it, the leader must ransom it by promising a
gift. This hidden matza is called afikomon, a Greek
word meaning "dessert". It is the last of the foods
eaten at the Seder meal, and a Seder cannot continue until each
participant has had a piece.
The seder plate is removed from the table
before the afikomon is eaten, and it is now time for a
regular meal (with food kosher for Pesach).
contains a riddle in poor Aramaic, supposedly made in the 15th
century, the Chad Gadja. It tells a bout a little kid (goat)
and is generally regarded as a parable, describing incidents in
the history of the Jewish people, with some reference to
prophecies yet unfulfilled. It is unclear why this can be found in
the Haggada, but it could be to keep the interest of the children.
It starts like this: "One only kid, one only kid, which my
father bought for two zuzim; one only kid, one only kid. And a cat
came and devoured the kid….."
The last pages of the Haggada consists of
the thirteen questions about the numbers one to twelve ("Who
knoweth one? I, saith Israel, know One: One is the Eternal, who is
above heaven and earth (… ) Who knoweth Thirteen? I, saith Israel,
know thirteen: There are thirteen divine attributes, twelve tribes,
eleven stars, ten commandments, nine months preceding childbirth,
eight days preceding circumcision, seven days in the week, six books
of the Mishnah, five books of the Law, four matrons, three
patriarchs, two tables of the covenant; but One is the Eternal who
is above heaven and earth."
By this time it is getting late, and the
smallest children have probably fallen asleep at the table.